The Commercial Law Unit sets up the technical assistance programme at different levels, depending on what the country has expressed. Technical assistance can be provided in an integrated form or in the form of stand-alone modules. The integrated form reaches the different levels of a legal framework: from policy makers to the ratification of important treaties, expanding knowledge about ratified treaties in certain ministries (trade, foreign affairs, justice) and / or other relevant public institutions, trade promotion organizations such as chambers of commerce and exporters` associations, through the academic community, and The Business World. For more information on the five training modules, click here. The EU itself is viewed largely subordinate to the US in its traditional policy areas, namely economic and trade policy. The project`s Iranian employee, Hassan Ahmadian, notes that European governments have “failed to roll back draconian US sanctions and thus pursue their stated goals.” As a result, “most Iranians see Europe as a weakened global player that can neither stimulate nor punish Iran wisely.” As a first step, the Council authorises the European Commission to negotiate a new trade agreement on behalf of the EU. This requires a “negotiating mandate”. With the appropriate authorisation, the Council shall open negotiating directives setting out the objectives, scope and possible deadlines of the negotiations. The Court of Justice of the European Communities has ruled that the provisions of investor-state arbitration (including a special tribunal provided for in certain free trade agreements) fall within the competence of the European Union and its Member States and that, for this reason, their ratification should be approved by both the EU and each of the 28 States.  The EU wants to ensure that imported products are sold in the EU at a fair and equitable price, regardless of their origin. Trade regulation in the form of trade defence instruments is a way to protect EU producers from harm and to combat unfair competition from foreign companies, such as dumping and subsidies. Trade agreements differ according to their content: the European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs)  and others with a trade component with many countries of the world and negotiates with many others.
 Europe`s second capital is diplomatic. Considerable diplomatic influence is widely considered – in principle, if not in practice. This stems from the positions of France and the UK as permanent members of the UN Security Council, as well as the collective weight of the EU bloc. Policymakers across the MENA region are constantly insisting on the firepower that a combined and independent European political position could have. Again, the EU is not sufficiently exploiting the influence it could gain through its many partnership agreements with MENA countries. Turkey has by far the most privileged relations with the Bloc due to its membership of the EU customs union. At a second level, the EU has concluded important association agreements with countries such as Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Morocco.